Cisco Router Configuration

Enter one command per line

At the > prompt type enable

At the # prompt type config t


At the <config># prompt type hostname lab-xAt the <config># prompt type enable secret (your chosen password)

At the <config># prompt type enable password (your chosen password)

At the <config># prompt type line con 0

At the <config-line># type login

At the <config-line># type password cisco 

At the <config-line># type line aux 0

At the <config-line># type login

At the <config-line># type password cisco

At the <config-line># type line vty 0 4

At the <config-line># type login

At the <config-line># type password cisco

To exit <config-line> mode, type exit

At the <config># prompt type interface (which ever one)

At the <config-if># type ip address —.—.—.—

At the <config-if># type no shutdown

At the <config-if># (only S0) type clockrate 56000

To exit <config-line> mode, type exit


At the <config># prompt type router (rip) or (IGRP + autonomous system number)

At the <config-router> # type Network —.—.—.— (all connected networks—not interfaces)

To exit the <config-router> # mode, type exit

At the <config># prompt type ip host lab-x1 (type all the interfaces on lab-x1)

At the <config># prompt type ip host lab-x2 (type all the interfaces on lab-x2)

At the <config># prompt type ip host lab-x3 (type all the interfaces on lab-x3)

At the <config># prompt type ip host lab-x4 (type all the interfaces on lab-x4)

Password Recovery for Cisco 2500 routers

1. While booting hit <CTRL> <BREAK> for HyperTerminal or <ATL> <B> for Tera terminal

2. at the > type o/r 0x2142 enter (this is ROM Monitor Mode)

3. at the next > type I (Initializes and reloads)

4. at the Router> type enable enter

5. at the Router# copy start run

6. type config t

7. change config-register to 0x2102

8. copy run start

Outlook Express Troubleshooting

Outlook Express (OE), which is bundled with the Windows operating system, is probably the email client most commonly used by the average home PC user. Here are some tips on how OE works and how to use it better.


How Outlook Express stores mail

A peculiarity of OE that many are not aware of is the proprietary way that email is stored. OE is organized with folders such as “Inbox”, “Outbox”, “Sent”, and “Deleted”. Rather than store individual messages as separate files, OE stores the contents of each of these folders in one proprietary binary file with the extension DBX. Thus there is a file Inbox.dbx, a file Outbox.dbx, a file Sent.dbx, and so forth. These files cannot be read by simply clicking on them. All of these files are kept in a hidden folder called “Outlook Express” that is buried deep down in the Documents and Settings folder with a very long and arcane path. Each user account has its own folder. Also, if you use more than one identity, each identity will have its own folder. Identities are assigned a long hexadecimal name called a GUID or Globally Unique Identifier. Here is an example of a path to an email store folder:

C:\Documents and Settings\UserName\Local Settings\Application Data\Identities\{ACEF249B-0C16-491C-B19E-347F8295C81C}\Microsoft\Outlook Express

A more convenient place for Outlook Express mail

It is possible to move the store folder to a much simpler path. This makes copying or backing up the email files much easier. The easiest way to find where your Outlook Express mail is currently stored is to open Outlook Express, go to the Tools-Options menu and click the “Maintenance” tab. There will be a button “Store Folder”. If you click that, a dialog box “Store Location” will open. It will list where your mail is currently being kept. Use the “Change” button to move the store folder for mail to a more accessible location. Choose a new location by typing in the box or use the Browse function.


How to add special characters to email

Did you ever want to put a special character like the cent sign (¢) or the British pound sign (£) into an email? Or use the correct symbols for Spanish or other languages? Regular users of word processing programs like Microsoft Word probably already know how to do this but many average PC users are not aware that two easy methods of inserting special characters are readily available. The first and more comprehensive way is to use the Windows accessory called Windows Character Map. On most XP machines this can be found either in All Programs-Accessories-System Tools or in All Programs-Accessories.

Another method makes use of the Numeric Keypad. That is the section on the right of many keyboards that is ignored by a lot of PC users. It actually has some useful functions and here is one of them. First, make sure the “Num Lock’ light is on. This function is toggled by the “Num Lock” key. With Num Lock on, you can enter special characters into Word documents, Outlook Express messages, and other documents by holding down the Alt key and entering a number code for a variety of special characters, and then releasing the Alt key. For example, to enter the cent sign (¢) hold down the Alt key, enter the numbers 0162 into the Numeric Keyboard, and then release the Alt key.

Combining and archiving emails in Outlook Express

If you ever want to archive a collection of emails, you can make use of a feature in OE for combining a bunch of emails into one file. The feature was originally intended for combining emails or newsgroup messages that were sent in encoded pieces (necessary for big files back in the days of narrow bandwidth) but it works for regular emails as long as they don’t contain graphics.

Select the emails to be combined by using either the Shift or Ctrl keys and open the OE menu “Message”. Choose “Combine and Decode” from the menu. A dialog box called “Order for decoding” will appear, listing all the messages. Don’t let the term “decoding” put you off. If you have some reason for doing so, you can change the order in which the different messages are combined but normally they will be in whatever order you use in your mailbox. Mine are chronological and I just leave them that way. When you are ready to combine the messages, click the button “OK”. The combined file will then be displayed in an OE window. Go to the “File” menu, click “Save as” and put the file wherever on your computer you want to keep it with an appropriate file name. The default format is the OE email format with extension “eml” but you can also choose a text format if your emails are pure text. The advantage of the eml format is that it preserves any hyperlinks in the original messages. Note that all the original messages are not affected and will still be in their original form and location.

I also use this method for transferring a bunch of messages from one computer to another. It is often easier than messing with the binary DBX files where OE messages are stored.

More on archiving or transferring email

The method given above works nicely as long as no message contains a picture. Hypertext links are OK but mail with embedded pictures doesn’t work. Either the combination process stops with the first email or the combined file ends up displaying the underlying HTML code instead.

However, there is another way to combine emails that I sometimes use to transfer mail from one computer to another or to archive a bunch of email in one file. This one works fine with graphics. Select the emails you are interested in and then click the “Forward” button. All the messages will be attached in a single new message. You do not have to actually forward the new message with all the attachments but can save it anywhere on your computer that you like. I do not know what limit OE itself might place on the number of attachments but I have attached as many as 30 emails to a single message. If you do wish to forward a combined message, keep in mind that not all ISPs may allow multiple attachments. Also, ISPs usually limit the size of an email, with 10 MB being a common number.

When OE pictures don’t send properly

I have had it happen to me that I send out email with a picture in it only to find that the picture didn’t accompany the email. This happens if a particular setting in OE gets accidentally changed. Instead of a picture being embedded in OE, only a reference to the picture is placed in the message. The message looks fine when viewed locally becuse the reference loads the graphics file. On somebody else’s computer, there is no file to load so they get a red X. The setting is reached by going to the OE menu Tools-Options and clicking the “Send” tab. In the dialog box that opens, click the button “HTML Settings” that is in the section “Mail Sending Format”. The dialog shown below will open. Make sure a check is by ” Send pictures with messages”. Then Click “OK” and “OK’ again.

Linux BASH Command Reference

An A-Z Index of the Linux BASH command line

alias    Create an alias
apropos  Search Help manual pages (man -k)
awk      Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
break    Exit from a loop
builtin  Run a shell builtin
bzip2    Compress or decompress named file(s)

cal      Display a calendar
case     Conditionally perform a command
cat      Display the contents of a file
cd       Change Directory
cfdisk   Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp    Change group ownership
chmod    Change access permissions
chown    Change file owner and group
chroot   Run a command with a different root directory
cksum    Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear    Clear terminal screen
cmp      Compare two files
comm     Compare two sorted files line by line
command  Run a command - ignoring shell functions
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp       Copy one or more files to another location
cron     Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab  Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit   Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut      Divide a file into several parts

date     Display or change the date & time
dc       Desk Calculator
dd       Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare  Declare variables and give them attributes
df       Display free disk space
diff     Display the differences between two files
diff3    Show differences among three files
dig      DNS lookup
dir      Briefly list directory contents
dircolors Colour setup for `ls'
dirname  Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs     Display list of remembered directories
du       Estimate file space usage

echo     Display message on screen
egrep    Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject    Eject removable media
enable   Enable and disable builtin shell commands
env      Environment variables
ethtool  Ethernet card settings
eval     Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec     Execute a command
exit     Exit the shell
expand   Convert tabs to spaces
export   Set an environment variable
expr     Evaluate expressions

false    Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk    Partition table manipulator for Linux
fgrep    Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file     Determine file type
find     Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt      Reformat paragraph text
fold     Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for      Expand words, and execute commands
format   Format disks or tapes
free     Display memory usage
fsck     File system consistency check and repair
ftp      File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros

gawk     Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts  Parse positional parameters
grep     Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groups   Print group names a user is in
gzip     Compress or decompress named file(s)

hash     Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head     Output the first part of file(s)
history  Command History
hostname Print or set system name

id       Print user and group id's
if       Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
import   Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install  Copy files and set attributes

join     Join lines on a common field

kill     Stop a process from running

less     Display output one screen at a time
let      Perform arithmetic on shell variables
ln       Make links between files
local    Create variables
locate   Find files
logname  Print current login name
logout   Exit a login shell
look     Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc      Line printer control program
lpr      Off line print
lprint   Print a file
lprintd  Abort a print job
lprintq  List the print queue
lprm     Remove jobs from the print queue
ls       List information about file(s)
lsof     List open files

make     Recompile a group of programs
man      Help manual
mkdir    Create new folder(s)
mkfifo   Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs  Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod    Make block or character special files
more     Display output one screen at a time
mount    Mount a file system
mtools   Manipulate MS-DOS files
mv       Move or rename files or directories

netstat  Networking information
nice     Set the priority of a command or job
nl       Number lines and write files
nohup    Run a command immune to hangups
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively

passwd   Modify a user password
paste    Merge lines of files
pathchk  Check file name portability
ping     Test a network connection
popd     Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr       Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf   Format and print data
ps       Process status
pushd    Save and then change the current directory
pwd      Print Working Directory

quota    Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl Set disk quotas

ram      ram disk device
rcp      Copy files between two machines.
read     read a line from standard input
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
remsync  Synchronize remote files via email
return   Exit a shell function
rm       Remove files
rmdir    Remove folder(s)
rsync    Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

screen   Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp      Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff    Merge two files interactively
sed      Stream Editor
select   Accept keyboard input
seq      Print numeric sequences
set      Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp     Secure File Transfer Program
shift    Shift positional parameters
shopt    Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep    Delay for a specified time
sort     Sort text files
source   Run commands from a file `.'
split    Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh      Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace   Trace system calls and signals
su       Substitute user identity
sudo     Execute a command as another user
sum      Print a checksum for a file
symlink  Make a new name for a file
sync     Synchronize data on disk with memory

tail     Output the last part of files
tar      Tape ARchiver
tee      Redirect output to multiple files
test     Evaluate a conditional expression
time     Measure Program running time
times    User and system times
touch    Change file timestamps
top      List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap     Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr       Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true     Do nothing, successfully
tsort    Topological sort
tty      Print filename of terminal on stdin
type     Describe a command

ulimit   Limit user resources
umask    Users file creation mask
umount   Unmount a device
unalias  Remove an alias
uname    Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq     Uniquify files
units    Convert units from one scale to another
unset    Remove variable or function names
unshar   Unpack shell archive scripts
until    Execute commands (until error)
useradd  Create new user account
usermod  Modify user account
users    List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

v        Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vdir     Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vi       Text Editor

watch    Execute/display a program periodically
wc       Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis  Report all known instances of a command
which    Locate a program file in the user's path.
while    Execute commands
who      Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami   Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
Wget     Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP

xargs    Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
yes      Print a string until interrupted

.        Run a command script in the current shell
###      Comment / Remark